In other words, the magnitude of the radius of a pleochroic halo in a particular crystal depends on the half-life of the decay responsible for the alpha particle emission. the radii of pleochroic haloes corresponding to a definite decay in a particular mineral are ...(the same) size, then it can be safely assumed that the half-life of that decay is a constant.The only dating methods discussed (over and over) by evolution-believing scientists and the mass media are those that supposedly "prove" that the earth is billions of years old.One of the most popular of these is known as radiometric dating. can be In other words, something in the past caused a significant amount of helium to build up inside these zircons (such as from a rapid decay episode of uranium), yet, in spite of the fact that helium has been observed to leak out readily from these zircons, it has not done so: simply because it hasn't had enough time to do so -- suggesting that the zircons themselves are only a few thousand years old."There is evidence to show ...Alpha particles are made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons.This means that they have a charge of 2, and a mass of 4 (the mass is measured in "atomic mass units", where each proton & neutron=1) We can write them as , or, because they're the same as a helium nucleus, . They have a low penetrating power - you can stop them with just a sheet of paper. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
Volta's pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications.Because they have a large charge, alpha particles ionise other atoms strongly.Beta particles have a charge of minus 1, and a mass of about 1/2000th of a proton.They did not have the benefit of cheap, off the shelf, mass produced batteries. Bronze is a relatively hard alloy of copper and tin, better suited for the purpose than the much softer copper enabling improved durability of the weapons and the ability to hold a cutting edge.For many years the telegraph, and later the telephone, industries were the only consumers of batteries in modest volumes and it wasn't until the twentieth century that new applications created the demand that made the battery a commodity item. The use of bronze for tools and weapons gradually spread to the rest of the World until it was eventually superceded by the much harder iron.